Boyd Corporation utilizes decades of two-phase cooling expertise to design and fabricate solutions that function and thrive well below room temperatures and into cryogenic environments. Low Temperature and Cryogenic Heat Pipes enable high-precision temperature control, rapid temperature recovery, and long life under demanding conditions.
Cryogenic Heat Pipes function as thermal solutions to protect sensitive detection devices in medical laboratory equipment, in home freezer units, in orbit and beyond. Aavid develops extreme-temperature heat pipes to support large-scale industrial applications such as oil-shale extraction, maximizing uptime while reducing energy and maintenance costs.
Like traditional copper-water heat pipes, Cryogenic Heat Pipes can be bent and flattened to fit specific application geometries. Cryogenic Heat Pipes can also be fabricated as Loop Heat Pipes for additional functionality and one directional heat flow. Low Temperature Heat Pipes can also be used in conjunction with other heat pipes and technologies to accommodate wider temperature ranges and added heat dissipation or temperature control functionality.
Boyd’s Cryogenic Heat Pipe solutions are customized to meet your application-specific requirements. Our design process first identifies the right working fluid for your application, then matches a compatible heat pipe metal to create a passive heat transfer component suitable for cryogenic temperatures. We have several wick options that include common sintered metal powder wicks, flexible cable or porous metal foam wick to optimize your low temperature or cryogenic heat pipe for your environmental conditions. Leveraging extensive thermal design and test experience, our engineers keep a mind for manufacturability as we finalize your geometric and thermal requirements for the Cryogenic Heat Pipe.
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Cryogenic Working Fluids:
Ammonia Heat Pipes (200K to 400K) Ammonia Heat Pipes are used for low temperature applications that require an operating range in temperatures between 200K to about 400K. These heat pipes are available in 76 to 457 mm (3-18") and diameters from 6.35 to 15.8 mm (0.25 - 0.75"). Ammonia Cryogenic Heat Pipes utilize a stainless steel envelope with a sintered stainless steel wick structure. Ammonia’s properties paired with a sintered wick allow heat transfer without gravity assistance so Ammonia Heat Pipes can operate horizontally or against gravity for temperatures between -50°C to about 30° C (223K to 300K).
Ethane Heat Pipes (120K to 300K) Ethane Heat Pipes are ideal for low temperature applications that operate between 120K to ~300K. The ethane working fluid is typically enveloped in a stainless steel heat pipe with a sintered stainless steel wick structure. Ethane Heat Pipes used with Oxygen heat pipes have been used to cool a superconducting magnet from room temperature down to cryogenic temperature in a Navy minesweeping application with field-tested reliability and trusted performance.
Nitrogen Heat Pipes (65K to 120K) Nitrogen Cryogenic Heat Pipes are used to remove heat in extreme low-temperature environments such as space. As nitrogen is inert, Nitrogen Heat Pipes serve as one of the safest two-phase cooling options, especially in high risk environments. Nitrogen Heat Pipe wick structures are optimized for each application and can include porous metal wicks which are useful to maintain performance in adverse acceleration, like launch conditions. Aavid’s Nitrogen Cryogenic Heat Pipes have been proven to protect cameras and sensors in launch and orbit conditions near 80K at adverse tilts up to 6.5 cm in NASA missions.
Oxygen Heat Pipes (60K to 140K) Oxygen Cryogenic Heat Pipes are useful components for thermal management at temperatures between -213°C and -133°C (60K to 140K). Aavid’s Oxygen Heat Pipes in conjunction with Ethane Heat Pipes have been proven in applications such as cooling superconducting magnets from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures for Navy minesweeping applications.
Methanol Heat Pipes (~200K to ~400K) Methanol Heat Pipes have a working range of -20°C to ~80°C (-253K and 353K) are a staple of many low temperature applications. Methanol provides extreme-temperature performance because it does not freeze until approximately -95°C (178K). Aavid’s Methanol Heat Pipes use a copper envelope with a sintered copper powder wick structure which operates with or against gravity for more design versatility. Methanol Heat Pipes are available in 76 to 457 mm (3 - 18") and diameters from 6.35 to 15.8 mm (0.25 - 0.75")
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