More products are moving towards enclosures and chassis with integrated thermal management solutions. By incorporating a liquid flow path within a chassis wall and ensuring adequate thermal connection to heat sources, enclosures and chassis can act both as a structural and thermal solution. Liquid flow paths within chassis and enclosures can be as simple as tubes bonded to the structure or highly complex internal with internal geometries that optimize liquid contact area, flow rate, and pressure drop. Enclosures can utilize a broad range of capabilities and fabrication methods that enables effective and efficient liquid cooled solutions. Popular fabrication methods include aluminum die casting, sheet metal bending, welding, dip brazing, and vacuum brazing.